What is it?
Mpox is caused by the monkeypox virus. The virus belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus, which includes variola virus (which causes smallpox), vaccinia virus (used in the smallpox vaccine) and the cowpox virus.
Infections with the type of Mpox virus identified in the current outbreak—the West African type—are rarely fatal. Over 99% of people who get this form of the disease are likely to survive. People who are at higher risk of serious illness or ever death include:
- people with weakened immune systems
- children under 8 years of age
- people with a history of eczema
- people who are pregnant or chestfeeding
Although the West African type is rarely fatal, symptoms can be extremely painful, and people might have permanent scarring resulting from the rash.
Current eligibility to receive the vaccine includes:
- Those who had close physical contact within the past 14 days with someone known or suspected of having mpox. This includes:
- Those who know or suspect their sexual partner(s) of having mpox.
- Those who live in the same household as someone they know or suspect of having mpox.
- Those who have been informed by the Health District they are a close contact of someone with mpox.
- Gay, bisexual, or other men who have sex with men, and transgender, gender non-conforming, or gender non-binary individuals who:
- Have had multiple or anonymous sex partners in the last 12 months.
- Have HIV or a history of a sexually transmitted infection in the last 12 months.
- Those who are any gender identity or sexual orientation who:
- Are sex workers.
- Had sex at a commercial sex venue or in association with a large public event.
- Those who are any gender identity or sexual orientation who:
- Are a sex partner of anyone in the currently eligible groups.
- Anticipates experiencing any of the identified risks.
- Those who have received their first dose of the vaccine are eligible for the second dose, even if they do not meet any of the current criteria.
- Individuals who had mpox are not eligible for the vaccine. Vaccine clients will be assessed prior to receiving the vaccine to ensure they meet the eligibility requirements.
- At this time, most clinicians in the United States and laboratorians not performing the orthopoxvirus generic test to diagnose orthopoxviruses, including mpox, are not advised to receive orthopoxvirus PrEP. Regardless of whether they get PrEP, clinicians and laboratorians should use recommended infection control practices.
There are two FDA approved monkeypox vaccines (Jynneos and ACAM2000), but only Jynneos is currently available in Nevada.
- JYNNEOS vaccine (also known as Imvamune or Imvanex) — two injections four weeks apart. Recipients are considered to reach maximum immunity 14 days after receiving their second dose. This vaccine is shown to be up to 85% effective in preventing the disease.
- In the United States, there is currently a limited supply of JYNNEOS, although more is expected in coming weeks and months. It is currently being allocated by health departments based on highest risk exposure.
- ACAM2000 vaccine — one dose. Recipients are considered to reach maximum immunity 1 month after their dose. There is currently no data on the effectiveness of the ACAM2000 vaccine from the current outbreak. There is an ample supply of ACAM2000.
Where to get the vaccine
At this time, you may be able to get a vaccine if you are at high risk following a confirmed or presumed monkeypox exposure. Vaccines are only available through local health departments.
- Carson City, Douglas, Lyon & Storey Counties
- Carson City Health and Human Services – 775-887-2190
- Clark County
- Southern Nevada Health District – 702-759-1200
- Washoe County
- Washoe County Health District – 775-328-2402
- Rural communities
- Contact their local health authority or community health nurse
- Email the Division of Public and Behavioral Health
Mpox was discovered in 1958 in a monkey kept for research. Prior to the 2022 outbreak, mpox had been reported in humans in several central and western African countries. Almost all human cases outside of Africa can be linked to international travel to countries where mpox is endemic or through imported animals and has historically been rare in the United States.
Starting in the summer of 2022, a global surge in cases began; Nevada has confirmed cases.
How does it spread?
Mpox is spread through close, personal often skin-to-skin contact including:
- Contact with infectious rash, scabs, or bodily fluids from a person infected with monkeypox
- Respiratory secretions during prolonged face-to-face contact, or during intimate physical contact such as kissing, sex, cuddling or chestfeeding
- Touching surfaces, and items (such as clothing or linens) that came into contact with infectious rash or bodily fluids
- Pregnant people can spread to their fetus through the placenta
- Contact with infected animals, either by being scratched or bitten, or by preparing or eating meat or using products from an infected animal
Mpox can spread from the time symptoms start until the rash is fully healed and a fresh layer of skin has formed. People who are not experiencing symptoms cannot spread the virus to others, and the illness typically lasts between 2-4 weeks.
Symptoms typically appear six to 13 days after exposure but can take up to three weeks to appear. They usually last two to four weeks. Some people may experience all or only a few symptoms. Most people with mpox will get a rash, and some may develop flu-like symptoms.
Symptoms may include:
- Rash that looks like pimples or blisters on face, inside of the mouth, hands, feet, genitals or anus
- Muscle aches
- Swollen lymph nodes
- Respiratory symptoms (e.g. sore throat, nasal congestion, or cough)
- Avoid close, skin-to-skin contact with people who have a rash that looks like mpox.
- Do not handle or touch the bedding, towels, or clothing of a person with mpox.
- Wash your hands often with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
If you are sick with mpox:
- Isolate at home
- If you have an active rash or other symptoms, stay in a separate room or area away from people or pets you live with, when possible.
What misinformation is circulating about mpox?
Mpox is a new disease.
Mpox was first discovered in 1958 when two outbreaks of a pox-like disease occurred in a group of monkeys kept for research, according to the CDC. The first case of mpox in a human was documented in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of Congo, according to the CDC. The virus has recently resurfaced in areas that don’t typically see the disease, including in Canada, Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Mpox is a disease of the LGBTQ community
Though some recent mpox cases have been identified in men who have sex with men, public health experts are concerned about discriminatory language that falsely associates those within the LGTBQ community with the virus. Mpox is not a sexually transmitted disease. It can spread through any intimate contact with someone who has an active rash, or by touching contaminated surfaces.
United Nations health officials have expressed concern over the homophobic and racist stereotypes being promoted by media outlets reporting on the virus and reiterated that anyone can become infected.
Mpox is as contagious as COVID
Mpox is not considered as contagious as COVID because it is primarily spread by skin-to-skin contact and only when symptoms are active.