What you need to know about Measles

What can I do to help spread the word about the importance of vaccination?

Stay informed. Ask questions of healthcare professionals. Access information from the Centers for Disease Control, the World Health Organization, the American Academy of Pediatrics, National Foundation for Infectious Diseases, and of course, Immunize Nevada. Connect with us on Facebook here and Twitter here.

What is the MMR vaccination schedule? Health experts recommend:

  • The first dose of MMR vaccine is recommended at 12 to 15 months of age.
  • The second dose of MMR vaccine is recommended at 4 to 6 years of age.
  • For those who travel abroad, CDC recommends that all U.S. residents older than 6 months be protected from measles and receive MMR vaccine, prior to departure.
    • Infants 6 through 11 months old should receive 1 dose of MMR vaccine before departure.
    • Children 12 months of age or older should have documentation of 2 doses of MMR vaccine (separated by at least 28 days). Please note that this is a recommendation for those who travel abroad.
  • Teenagers and adults without evidence of measles immunity should have documentation of 2 appropriately spaced doses of MMR vaccine.
     

Where can I go to get immunized?

This list has recommendations for locations throughout Nevada. You can also visit the HealthMap Vaccine Finder and search by zip code.


How effective is the MMR vaccine against measles?

According to Greg Wallace, MD, lead of the measles, mumps, rubella and polio team at the CDC, two doses are 97 percent effective against infection. "That means that 3 of 100 will potentially contract measles if exposed," he said. "If you have a group of 1,000 people concentrated in a small space—like oh, say, hypothetically, an amusement park—about 90 percent of them will be vaccinated (hopefully). One person, maybe someone who contracted measles on a recent trip abroad, moves around, spreading the virus. Measles is crazy contagious, so of the 100 people who aren’t vaccinated, about 90 will get infected. Then, of the 900 people who are vaccinated, 3 percent—27 people—get infected because they don’t have full immunity."
 

Can vaccinated people still get measles?

Yes. The bottom line is that U.S. schools are seeing a rising number of personal belief vaccine exemptions being filed (However, Nevada does not have this type of exemption.) Additionally, unvaccinated people often cluster together. When you combine the two, you get a virus that has more potential to spread. According to the article “Five Things To Know About The Disneyland Measles Outbreak” by Forbes contributor Tara Haelle: “No vaccine can protect 100% of those who receive it…vaccines can fail. The antibodies your body creates can wane, or your body may not have sufficiently responded to the vaccine in the first place. But those who are unvaccinated are at a greater risk by far. An unvaccinated person is 35 times more likely to catch measles than a vaccinated person.”
 

How is measles transmitted?

“Measles is extremely contagious,” said Dr. Anne Schuchat, the assistant surgeon general, United States Public Health Service and director of CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. “It is so contagious that if one person has it, 90% of the people close to the person who aren't immune will also be infected. You can catch it just by being in the same room as a person with measles; even if that person left the room because the virus can hang around for a couple of hours.”
 

Why does this matter, since measles is just a rash?

According to the Immunization Action Coalition: Measles can lead to serious complications and death, even with modern medical care. The 1989–1991 measles outbreak in the U.S. resulted in more than 55,000 cases and more than 100 deaths. In the United States, from 1987 to 2000, the most commonly reported complications associated with measles infection were pneumonia (6%), otitis media (7%), and diarrhea (8%). For every 1,000 reported measles cases in the United States, approximately one case of encephalitis and two to three deaths resulted. The risk for death from measles or its complications is greater for infants, young children, and adults than for older children and adolescents.
 

How do I find out if my family is current on vaccinations?

Visit the Nevada Web IZ Public Access Portal  or call the Nevada Web IZ help desk at 1-877-689-3249. The Public Access Portal allows parents and legal guardians to print official immunization records for their child(ren) (aged 0 through 17 years). It also allows adult individuals (aged 18 years and over) to print official immunization records for themselves. This is an official record and can be used as proof of immunization for school entry, summer camp, employment, etc. Additionally, contacting your health care professional can also provide you with answers to your questions about your vaccination record.
 

What is community immunity (aka herd immunity), and why does it matter? According to vaccines.gov:

“When a critical portion of a community is immunized against a contagious disease, most members of the community are protected against that disease because there is little opportunity for an outbreak. Even those who are not eligible for certain vaccines—such as infants, pregnant women, or immunocompromised individuals—get some protection because the spread of contagious disease is contained. This is known as ‘community immunity.’ The website asks your to consider groups like the following:

  • 6 months to 12 months of age, so mom’s antibodies have waned, and baby not old enough to get a vaccine
  • Pregnant women
  • The immunocompromised
     

Do adults need an MMR booster shot?

According to Dr. Robert Schooley, head of the Division of Infectious Diseases at UC San Diego:  Some might. Anyone born before 1957 likely has immunity because the virus was in wide circulation until the first vaccine was introduced in 1963. However, a second booster shot was not added to the childhood vaccination schedule until 1989. So adults born after 1957 but before 1985 may have received only one MMR shot and may benefit from a booster. Also, the CDC recommends two MMR doses for anyone who received an inactivated or “killed” measles vaccine, or one of unknown origin, from 1963 to 1967. That’s because more recent versions of the vaccine are more effective. If you are unsure about your vaccination status, you can check with your family physician.


I have a toddler. The CDC recommends a first dose for babies at 12 months and a second between the ages of 4-5; given the recent outbreak, should I get the second dose early?

In certain circumstances, like before international travel, MMR is recommended for infants age 6 through 11 months. Nevada experts recommend vaccinating children age 12 months and older at the earliest indication (12 months, instead of 12 through 15 months). Check with your healthcare provider for when you should return for the second dose. Do not count any dose of MMR vaccine as part of the 2-dose series if it is administered before a child's first birthday. Instead, repeat the dose when the child is age 12 months. Finally, remember that infants too young for routine vaccination and people with medical conditions that contraindicate measles immunization depend on high MMR vaccination coverage among those around them. Be sure to encourage your family members to get vaccinated if they are not immune.


Does the MMR Vaccine cause Autism?

There is no scientific evidence that MMR vaccine causes autism. The question about a possible link between MMR vaccine and autism has been extensively reviewed by independent groups of experts in the U.S. including the National Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Medicine. These reviews have concluded that the available epidemiologic evidence does not support a causal link between MMR vaccine and autism.

 

Who should not be vaccinated? According to the CDC:

  • Anyone who has ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction to the antibiotic neomycin, or any other component of MMR vaccine, should not get the vaccine. Tell your doctor if you have any severe allergies.
  • Anyone who had a life-threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose of MMR or MMRV vaccine should not get another dose.
  • Some people who are sick at the time the shot is scheduled may be advised to wait until they recover before getting MMR vaccine.
  • Pregnant women should not get MMR vaccine. Pregnant women who need the vaccine should wait until after giving birth. Women should avoid getting pregnant for 4 weeks after vaccination with MMR vaccine.
  • Tell your doctor if the person getting the vaccine:
    • Has HIV/AIDS, or another disease that affects the immune system
    • Is being treated with drugs that affect the immune system, such as steroids
    • Has any kind of cancer
    • Is being treated for cancer with radiation or drugs
    • Has ever had a low platelet count (a blood disorder)
    • Has gotten another vaccine within the past 4 weeks
    • Has recently had a transfusion or received other blood products
  • Any of these might be a reason to not get the vaccine, or delay vaccination until later.


It seems as though some doctors are saying kids with high fevers must have viruses. How would you know your kid has measles if the doc dismisses it?

Many viruses this time of year look similar to start with. Measles onset typically includes fever, cough, runny nose, pink eye and white spots inside cheeks. Measles can have severe complications, so it is important if you continue to be concerned that you check with your doctor. The rash we associate with measles appears 2-4 days after onset of symptoms and begins on face and head and moves down and across the body.


How did measles spread like this again? Are there cultures who do not vaccinate for it at all?

The bottom line is that U.S. schools are seeing a rising number of personal belief vaccine exemptions being filed (However, Nevada does not have this type of exemption.) Additionally, unvaccinated people often cluster together. When you combine the two, you get a virus that has more potential to spread. The majority of cases recently started from an imported case from traveling outside the United States to countries that are still seeing high rates of measles.


Are vaccinated people still able to be "carriers" of measles even though they can't get it? (I’m concerned about a pregnant friend being exposed.)

The measles virus can spread in a person four days before the onset of the telltale rash. So people with the virus start being contagious before they’d ever know they had measles, and this could happen if the vaccinated person falls into the group who could still contract the disease, which is less than 3%. Your friend who is pregnant should make sure she talks with her doctor about any concerns around exposure.


How can the public find out what the name of this local business is that possibly has a outbreak so we can stay away from it?

We do not know the business name. Unfortunately, disease can be in many places in a community and we don't always know its location. Therefore, it's best to be proactive and make sure you're fully vaccinated. This applies during influenza season as well.


What are my options in protecting my children from unvaccinated children?

We recommend discussing vaccination status with family and friends if you are concerned. If your children are fully vaccinated, chances of contracting measles is reduced; however the more children immunized in a community helps protect everyone. The majority of cases from the Disneyland outbreak are in unvaccinated individuals.


If my child is 3 and is up to date what are her chances of getting measles?

The vaccine is about 97-99% effective if she's had two doses, which would be considered up to date.


Can anything kill the measles virus in the air or on surfaces — disinfectant sprays, wipes, etc.?

Infected droplets of mucus can remain active and can be passed on by touching (they are contagious) for around two hours. This means that the virus can live outside the body — for example, on surfaces and door handles. Cleaning these items is recommended if concerned.


My daughter was sent home from the affected school with a high fever yesterday and they failed to notify me of this issue until 6pm at night, she has seen a doc and has a head cold and ear infection. She still has a high fever; how concerned should I be she has measles? Should I keep my 12 month old away since she does not have all the shots yet? Both my kids have received shots.

If you haven't already notified your doctor of your daughter's exposure, we recommend you call their office.


I understand that the first vaccine is recommended for children at 12 months and the second between 4-6 years. But I also have heard that it's safe anytime between 12 months and 4 years as long as it's more than 28 days after the first shot. Therefore, should I get my 2-year-old her second vax now, given the current potential for outbreak?

The minimum recommended interval is at least 4 weeks between doses, we recommend you discuss this option with your healthcare provider.


Is it possible to get the measles shot only….not combined with the Mumps and Rubella for children who have medical conditions that put them at risk?

it is not possible as single antigen vaccines are no longer produced for use in the United States.


If you have no idea about the second booster shot and you are an adult and your family doctor retired years ago and no medical records are still around should we get the booster? If our kids have had them all, should they get another or are they ok?

If you don't know your vaccination status as an adult, it is recommended to have two doses for full protection. Children who have had two doses have completed the recommendation.


My child is in a daycare facility; do I have a legal right to find out if the other children in her room are current on their MMR vaccinations?

Nevada requires certain vaccinations for enrollment in licensed childcare centers, and you can ask the child care center for their vaccination rates.


Do vaccines still contain mercury? That seems to be a common complaint heard from anti-vaxxers.

Since 2001, with the exception of some influenza (flu) vaccines, thimerosal (mercury-containing preservative) is not used as a preservative in routinely recommended childhood vaccines.


Do you recommend vaccinating infants slightly under a year old?

In certain circumstances, like before international travel or during a declared outbreak by the local health department, MMR is recommended for infants age 6 through 11 months. Nevada experts recommend vaccinating children age 12 months and older at the earliest indication (12 months, instead of 12 through 15 months). Do not count any dose of MMR vaccine as part of the 2-dose series if it is administered before a child's first birthday. Instead, repeat the dose when the child is age 12 months.


Should I be concerned, even though my child has had only one dose of the MMR vaccine?

Full immunity is not acquired until the 2nd dose has been administered. The CDC recommends a dose at 12 months and a booster at 4 years of age for full protection. You should follow up with your health care provider to confirm your child's vaccination status.

 

*always talk to your healthcare provider if you have questions about vaccinations. These questions and answers are summarized from healthcare experts and organizations such as the CDC, Immunization Action Coalition, and more. Email us at info@immunizenevada.org if you have a question not listed here..